As the number of people grows, there is going to be a higher demand for resources. The world population will soon reach a critical level, and we will quickly start worrying about the scarcity of natural resources. We already know that to sustain life on this planet, we need minimal natural resources. Our world has minimal arable land and living space. It doesn’t contain enough supplies to feed and accommodate our rapidly growing population.
This situation will eventually lead to a limited satisfaction of individual needs and demands as the natural resources themselves are getting exhausted. Every year, the 11th of July is observed as ‘World Population Day.’ This day is meant to raise awareness programs on global population issues. The increase in population has led to many consequences that adversely affect the people living on this planet.
One of the significant problems we are facing today is global warming. Due to the higher demand for resources and minimal effort to produce sustainable forms of energy, the planet is suffering this phenomenon. We cannot say that the extreme changes in the temperature, landslides, pollution, depletion of the ozone layer, earthquakes, deforestation, lack of fuel and scarcity of food and water are not the effects of overpopulation.
On the other hand, there are various social and economic problems associated with overpopulation. Underdeveloped countries suffer from the direct effects of industrialization, and are the underlying cause of overpopulation.
Over billions of people are living under the poverty line and lack access to food and shelter. As a result, many of these people die due to starvation, malnutrition and lack of housing every day while the rich enjoy the abundance of food shelter. The demand for food is more in developing countries.
In the developed countries, the increase in wealth has rapidly increased the standards of living, giving their population more spending power and ultimately leading to increased demands for essential resources, as well as luxuries. Many developed countries import gross amounts of food which in return causes other countries to face shortage leading to an increase in food prices globally which causes a gross imbalance and wreaks havoc in the economy.
Causes of overpopulation
It is common knowledge that China is the world’s number one populous country and India is the second. Still, tentatively there is a belief that India might overtake the world population in the next few decades. The main factor that leads to overpopulation in India is as follow.
1. The birth rate is higher when compared to the death rate. India had been able to successfully decrease the death rate but has not been able to control the rapidly increasing birth rate.
2. The tendency to marry early in India is a crucial reason that leads to overpopulation. Even if the constitution states that a girl cannot marry before the age of 18, an early marriage system still prevails freely in India, which subsequently results in early childbearing.
3. Illiteracy and poverty is another factor. People have a notion that the more the number of children in the family, the more the income. We still are yet to know more about the birth control method and contraceptive, and they are hesitant to discuss it. Also, India still lags behind in using effective birth control methods.
Effect of Overpopulation
1. The rate of unemployment is rising quickly
2. A rise in the slum area, traffic congestion and overcrowded housing
3. Lack of education and health care
4. Rise in the cost of food and living due to the decrease in production and a rise in consumption
5. Unequal distribution of income leading to poverty
1. The government should take up various measures to overcome the problem of overpopulation in a more determined manner
2. The literacy rate should be increased, and awareness programs should be set up on the effects of overpopulation and prominent families
3. Distribute male sterilization and spacing in birth
4. Encourage female empowerment to avoid early marriage
It is high time the people are made more aware about the ill-effects of overpopulation because it is in our hands to save the planet and make it sustainable to live comfortably for an extended period and also to make sure the generations that follow have natural resources left for them too.